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In Depth History

To the south of St. Francois County is Madison County, with an area of 560 square miles. The surface is very uneven, ranging from high chert hills and mountains to low valleys. The highest elevations are west of the St. Francois. They are Daguerre Mountain, 492 feet; Blue Mountain, 551 feet; Smith's Mouutain, 432 feet; Rock Creek Mountain, 575 feet, and Black Mountain, 467 feet. The rocks are mainly syenitic and porphyritic. There is but little soil on the mountains, which are covered with fragments of chert or porphyry. In the elevated valleys is found the red clay soil, with a base of Magnesian limestone. This is the character of the land in the vicinity of Fredericktown, and along Slater-'s Creek, and Mathews' Creek. The northern part of the county forms an elevated plateau, upon which the soil is based on syenitic rocks, and is not very productive. It is, however, an excellent fruit country.

The county is rich in minerals, and contains a great variety of them. Lead is the most valuable, and has been worked for more than a century and a half. When Renault, in 1720, entered the country with his miners, he was accompanied by La Motte, a mineralogist, who in one of the earliest excursions, discovered the mines in the northern part of this county, which still bear his name. Of this mine, Moses Austin wrote in 1804 as follows: "Mine La Motte was discovered by Mr. Renault, about the year 1723 or 1724, who made an exploration, but finding no silver ore abandoned it. About the 1725 a man by the name of La Motte opened and wrought the mine, after whom it was called. About the years 1738-40 the Mine ala Motte was considered a public property, and the people in general were allowed to work it. At that time it furnished almost all the lead exported from the Illinois. But soon after the discovery and opening of the Mine a Burton* the Mine a la Motte was in a great measure abandoned, the mineral at Mine a Burton being much easier melted. The Mine a la Motte, is at this time claimed as private property; in consequence, the inhabitants in general are denied the privilege of working. Therefore the quantity of lead is greatly reduced. For the years 1802 and 1803 the quantity of lead made at Mine ala Motte did not exceed 200,000 pounds' weight, although about thirty men were employed from four to six months in each year. "

The claimants of the mine at this time were J. B. Pratte, J. B. St. Gem, Francois Valle and J. B. Valle, who alleged that they purchased the property in 1790. To the United States Commissioners they submitted evidence to show that the mine was worked by one of the Valles as early as 1763; that in 1769 the Chickasaw Indians killed the son of Valle, and bv other acts of hostility drove him from the land; that a short after, he attempted to resume work, when one of his companions was seized and burned by the Indians; but that in 1780, or 1782, he once more returned to work. In 1827 the grant, which consists of about 24,000 acres, was confirmed to these claimants or their representatives, who in 1838 sold to C. C. Valle, Louis F. Linn and E. E. Pratte. These owners divided the mining section into forty lots of forty aeres each, and leased them for a term of ten years, which was afterward extended three years. Various parties worked under these leases, and four or five furnaces were operated. In the thirteen years an aggregate of 19,000,000 pounds of lead was produced. During this period, a partition sale of the property took place, and some Philadelphia men became part owners. A 'legal fight over the title ensued, and lasted until the beginning of the civil war, during which time there was little mining done In 1861 the works were destroyed by the Federal troops. In 1868 the property was purchased by the La Motte Lead Company, composed of R. G. Hazard, of Rhode Island; R. B. Lockwood, of New York, and W. A. Scott, of St. Louis. Modern machinery and furnaces were put up, and preparations made for more systematic work, but the stockholders disagreed, and a financial wreck was the result. In 1876 Rowland G. Hazard became the sole proprietor, and still owns and works the mines. His manager is 'Mr. J. D. Sanders.

Three mines are worked. The ore is raised by steam, and carried over tramways to the works, where it is treated to much the same process as the disseminated ore at other mines. The mines may be termed shallow, the deepest not going more than 130 feet below the surface. The ore lies in isolated masses, the veins averaging three or four feet thick. In 1876 the total amount of lead produced from these mines since their discovery was estimated at 110,571,436 pounds. In 1887 the yield was about 80,000 pigs. Other lead mines in the county have been worked at different times, and recently there has been considet'able prospecting for this metal. It is thought that there are ore fields as rich as those of St. Francois County, if they were sought out and developed.

In 1843 copper was discovered by John Craddock, one and a half miles east of Fredericktown. He sold out to Dilly & ! very, who formed a company to develop the mine, but four years later the property was transferred to J. T. Foster & Co" of New York, who worked it until 1860, taking out large quantities of black oxide and yellowsulphuret. Soon after the close of the war, work was discontinued, and has never been resumed. In 1838 copper sulphides in paying quantities were found on the Mine La Motte tract, and in 1845 a mine was opened. Work was carried on for three years, and it is said that the net profits from the copper taken out amounted to $150,000. The ore in sight was exhausted, and the work was suspended.

In the smelting of lead at Mine La Motte, some cobalt and nickel are found, and shipped to Europe in its raw state. The amount averages about seventy-five tons per year.

About fifteen years ago a company of St. Louis capitalist was organized to develop what was thought to be a very rich deposit of tin. It was found in what has since been known as Tin Mountain, ten miles southwest of Fredericktown. Half a million dollars was expended in putting in machinery and opening up the mine, but no tin was obtained, and the company was forced to the conclusion that the mine had been" salted" by interested persons, since specimens assayed had yielded large returns.

An equally fruitless attempt was made to develop a silver mine in the western part of the county, but it is believed that bad this company continued their work they would have met with success.

With the exception of lead, the most valuable mineral production in the county at the present time is granite. A quarry has been opened by the La Motte Granite Company, about three and one-half miles from Fredericktown, and a large force of men are employed in getting out granite paving blocks.

Ten miles southwest of Fredericktown is a marble quarry, from which have been taken some very beautiful specimens, but it has not been extensively worked. It is of a very beautiful color, takes a good polish, and is highly valuable for ornamental work. Besides the minerals mentioned, there are large deposits of kaolin and hydraulic cement, but neither have been developed.

Madison County is drained by Castor and St. Francois Rivers. The main prong of the latter runs through the western part of the county, and receives from the west Brewer's, Stout's, Marble and Leatherwood Creeks. The tributaries from the east are Cedar, Turkey, Twelve Mile, Piney, Dry and Trace Creeks. Little St. Francois rises in St. Francois County, runs through the Mine La Motte tract, and forms a junction with the main stream twelve miles below Fredericktown. Its tributaries are Saline, Mill, Village, Rock and Musco Creeks. The Castor River rises in the northeast part of the county, and flowing southward receives the waters of Dry and Ground's Creeks from the east, and Kelly's and Mouser's Creeks from the west.

Probably the first settlement in Madison other than the mining communities, which were constantly shifting, was made by John Calloway, who came from Kentucky, and located on Saline Creek, as early as 1799. He served as a judge of the court of quarter-sessions of Ste. Genevieve District in 1806, and was sheriff of Madison County.

William Dillon and John Mathews came from South Carolina a year or two later.

About the year 1800 a grant of 400 arpents was made to each of thirteen individuals, between the Saline Creek and Little St. Francois River. These individuals were Peter Chevalier, Paul De Guire, Andrew De Guire, Baptiste De Guire, Antoine Lachance, Nicholas Lachance, Joseph Lachance, Michael Lachance, Gabriel Nicolli, Peter Veriat, and three whose names could not be found. After the manner of French settlers, they established a village, called St. Michael, and cultivated their land from that.

In 1806 Elijah O'Bannon came from Virginia, and located two miles west of St. Michael, where, in 1818, he built the first brick house in the county. Among other early settlers may be mentioned the Colliers, Pettitts and Friars from Kentucky, the Watts and Anthonys from Virginia, and the Whiteners and Mousers. The last two families located in the south part of the county, the Mousers on the creek which bears their name.

Formation of Madison County.-The act for the organization of Madison County was passed on December 14, 1818, on the Bame day that the counties of Lincoln, Pike and Montgomery were formed. At that time the circuit court transacted all the county business.

Court Proceedings.-The first term was held at the house of Theodore F. Tong, on July 12, 1819, by Judge Thomas. Charles Hutchings performed the duties of clerk, but at the next term Nathaniel Cook received the appointment. The sheriff was Joseph Montgomery, who returned the following list of grand jurors: Jason Harrison, John White, Adam Ground, John Clement, Jacob Shook, Elisha Bennett, Thomas Cooper, Lee Pettitt, Nicholas LaChance, John B. Deguire, Alexander Fletcher, William Dillard, James Pettitt, Thomas Crawford, Peter Sides, John Best, JohnSides, HenryWhitener,JohnWrightandE.Mitchell. They returned indictments against John Callaway, Samuel Strother, J. G. W. McOabe, Joseph Bennett, D. L. Caruthers, George and Jacob Nifong, Peter Chevallier, Moses Baird, Samuel Anthony, Thomas Craddock, George Robertson, John Bridges, Adam Henderson and Arthur McFarland for assault and battery; against "Fred. Mires" for horse stealing; against George Wear for "cow stealing;" against J. B. Stephens for larceny, and against William Stephens for hog stealing. In the assault and battery cases all were found guilty, and fined in various sums, except Bridges and McFarland. In the other cases there were no convictions. Stephens was charged with having stolen a considerable sum of money £rum his neighbor, Caruthers, but there was not sufficient proof to convict, and the case against him was discharged. Soon after a man named John Duncan came to the county from Tennessee, and, hearing the reports of the robbery, planned to murder Stephens, secure the money which he was supposed to have stolen, and make his escape. He went to Stephens' house, two and one-half miles.east of Fredericktown, and represented himself as a land buyer. Stephens was at work in the woods, not far away, with his sons, two young lads, and thither Mrs. Stephens sent Duncan. The latter by strategem succeeded in securing the ax and gun which Stephens and his sons had, and murdered all three. He went to the house, killed Mrs. Stephens, spent some time in searching for the money, and departed, leaving two small children unharmed. He was arrested a day or two later, tried, convicted and sentenced to be hung on April 5, 1821. The execution took place in the northeast part of town, near the creek, at what is still known as "Duncan's Hole." People came from all the surrounding counties, and several hundred were present. Duncan made a full confession upon the scaffold, entirely exonerating two worthy citizens who had been indicted as accessories.

At the November term, 1827, Conrad Cotner was brought on a change of venue from Cape Girardeau County, and tried for the murder of Charles Hinkle. He was found guilty of manslaughtert and sentenced to imprisonment for one year and to pay a fine of $500. To this the court added the following ordet: "It is ordered that said Cotner be put to labor in the blacksmith shop of Elisha Bennett in the town of Fredericktown, in the county of Madison, in the manner following: The said Cotner shall labor in said shop, chained to the anvil block therein, the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth and eleventh months of the time for which he is to be imprisoned, the said Bennett furnishing the said Cotner with diet, and returning him to prison every night."

In February, 1844, A. W. Smith killed John Vincent. The two mell, who were neighbors, had had a quarrel about some stock of the one breaking into the field of the other. Smith, who had previously borne a bad reputation, waylaid Vincent as he was returning home one night, and shot him. He lived only long enough to reach the nearest house and relate what had occurred. Smith upon trial was convicted, and was sentenced to be hung. His counsel took an appeal to the supreme court, and pending a. decision an election was held in Fredericktown, at which several friends of the murdered man were present. After indulging very freely in whisky they proposed to take Smith from the jail and hang him, but this the sheriff with a posse of citizens prevented. After standing guard for about two hours the sheriff, to quiet the mob, proposed to vote upon the question of hanging, knowing that the majority present would sustain the law. This was agreed to, but no sooner had the guards left the jail than the lynchers made a dash, broke open the door, secured the prisoner, and, putting a rope around his neck, literally dragged him to the place of execution. Then they compelled a Methodist minister, Rev. Jesse P. Davis, to offer up a prayer for the condemned man, after which they proceeded with the hanging. Fourteen of the mob Wel"e subsequently arrested and indicted, but, with one or two exceptions, the entire number died within a year, and before any trial was had.

The county court of Madison County held its first meeting on February12, 1821, at the house of J. G. W. McCabe, at which time William Dillon and Henry Whitener, justices, were present,. and appointed Nathaniel Cook, clerk. At this time the county extended west to Black River, and was divided into three townships, Castor occupying the eastern part, St. Michaels the western, and Liberty the nol'thern. Two new townships were now laid out. They were Twelve-Mile, included all the southwest part of the county, and German Township, which adjoined it on the east. Election places were then fixed, and judges of election appointed, as follows: Liberty-at the house of John Renohue; Ephraim Stout, Anthony Sharp and Elisha Bennett, judges. St. Michaels-at the courthouse; Thomas Cooper, James Holman and Thomas Craddock, judges. Castor-at the house of William Anthony; Hugh Fulton, John White and David Ward, judges. German-at the house of the widow Whitener; John Bess, Michael Mouser and Anthony Clubb, judges. Twelve Mile-at the house of William Boren; William Boren, William Cravens and A. Johnston, judges. Other townships were subsequently organized-St. Francois in 1845, Arcadia in 1848, and Union in 1850. In 1857, by the organization of Iron County, Arcadia and the greater part of Union and Liberty were cut off. Liberty was then reestablished and Polk Township formed.

Prior to 1822 the courts were held at private residences. In that year the present brick courthouse was completed. It is in a remarkably good state of preservation, and is the oldest structure of the kind now in use west of the Mississippi. A jail was completed a year or two before the courthouse. It stood on what is still known as the jail lot, and was built with triple walls of logs, in the middle wall the logs being placed upright. It was burned by an escaped prisoner named Mitchell. A brick jail was then built upon the public square. It met with the same fate as the first, and for over thirty years the county has been without a jail.

In 1822 the total receipts of the county were $249.42, and the expenditures $343.72. In 1859 the receipts were $4,542.01, and the expenditures $5,931.91. The indebtedness of the county was then $14,946.76, of which $12,850 was incurredin the construction of the Fredericktown and Pilot Knob gravel road. This indebtedness has been paid, and the county is now in a highly prosperous condition.

Officials.-The following is a list of the officers of Madison County since its organization:

Clerks of the Oounty Court.-Charles Hutchings, from April to December, 1819; Nathaniel Cook, 1819-23; Thomas Moseley, Jr.,1823-32; William M. Newberry, 1832-42; Edward H. Evans, 1842-62; A. C. Leclere, 1862-63; William N. Nalle, 1863-65; H. H. Finley, 1865-67; William M. Newberry, 1867-70; Sol. D. Caruthers, 1870-74; Thomas E. Roussin, 1874-82; N. B. Watts, 1882.

Clerks of the Circuit Court and Recorders.-The same as the clerks of the county court to 1870; Thomas Holloway, 1870-74, T. H. Johnson, 1874--79; W. J. Collier, 1879-80; J. P. Gabriel; 1880-86; Hiram Berry, 1884.

Sheriffs.-Joseph Moore, 1819-21; John Callaway, 1821-23; Micajah Stone, 1823-28; Peter Chevallier, 1828-30; C.C. Burdett, 1830-32; Micajah Stone, 1832-34; Richard Britton, 1834-38 ; James Marshall, 1838-42; Charles K. Henderson, 1842-46; Frederick M. L. Sullivan, 1846-50; David B. Brewer, 1850-54; David N. Griffin, 1854-56; J. M. Spiva, 1856-60; Thomas B. Grigsby, 1860-1865; Martin G. Foster, 1865-67; William H. Higdon, 1867-70; D. N. Griffin, 1870-73; R. C. Cooper, 1873-75; G. W. Lanpher, 1875-78; Felix Slater, 1878-80; J. M. Arnett, 1880-84; H. S. Spiva, 1884.

Assessors.-William Egar, 1820-22; E. H. Bennett, 1822-23; Robert M. Friar, 1823-24; Andrew Wight, 1825-27; William Anthony, 1827-28; Andrew Wight, 1828-29; Thomas Craddock, 1830_-31; Elisha Spiva, 1831-32; D. L. Caruthers, 1832-33; Abraham Britton, 1833-34; James Marshall, 1833-34; Jeremiah Cravens, 1834--35; E. H. Spiva, 1837-; David N. Griffin, 1846-56; C. C. Burdett, 1856-58; B. C. Cooper and George W. King, 1858-59; C. C. Burdett, 1860; N. B. Allen, 1863-65; Philip Schulte, 1865-67; Ira L. Wood, 1867-69; D. E. Underwood, 1869-70; George W. Lanpher, 1870-74; Powel1 Callaway, 1874--75; Joseph Deguire, 1875-79; George L. Bruce, 1879-80; John H. Townsend, 1880; A. A. Deguire, 1880-82; William Matkin, 1882-84; R. A. Buckner, 1884.

Treasurers.-Thomas Moseley, Jr., 1820-34; Zenas Smith, 1834--37; Jeremiah Spencer, 1837-41; Caleb Cox, 1841-52<; Hiram N. Tong, 1852-54; Anthony Leclere, 1854-59; W. F. Cox, 1859-63; J. W. Hill, 1863--65; Daniel Peterson, 1865-70; J. W. Hill, 1870-72; Frank T. Lee, 1872-78; R. H. NaIle, 1878-84; N. J. Berry, 1884.

Judges of the County Coun.-William Dillon, 1821-22; Samuel Anthony, 1821-23; Joseph Bennett, 1821-25; John Burdett, 1822-23; John Bennett, 1823-24; Elijah O'Bannon, 1823-25; Thomas Cooper, 1824-25; William Anthony, 1825-26; John McArthur, 1825; Allen Duncan, 1825-26; Wesley Garrett, 1825-26; Caleb Cox, 1825-27; R. M. Friar, 1825-27; Joseph Bennett, 1826-27; Anthony Clubb, 1826-27; John L. Pettitt, 1826-27; Anthony Sharp, Sr., 1826-27; Elijah O'Bannon, 1827-31; George Weir, 1827-31; Isham Harrison, 1827-31; Moses Cox, 1831-32; Thomas Cooper, 1831-46; William Anthony, 1831-39; Anthony Clubb, 1832-35; Allen Duncan, 1835-41; Josiah Ber- ryman, 1839-41; J. D. Villars, 1841-45; William Anthony, 1841-50; Richard Britton, 1846-50; R. M. Shannon, 1845-52; Uriah Duncan, 1850-52; J. C. Berryman, 1850-60; Robert Sloss, 1852-56; John B. Belmar, 1852-56; A. C. Farnham: 1856-57; Richard Britton, 1857-58; R. M. Shannon, 1856-63; William Maze, 1858-65; L. M. Clowninger, 1860-65; E. M. Spiva, 1863-65; James Finley, 1865-67; Caleb Berry, 1865-72; James Addison, 1865-67; J. C. Berryman, 1867-68; B. F. Kelly, 1867-70; John Schulte, 1868-74; E. H. Spiva, 1870-76; Ancil Mathews, 1872-78; John Schulte, 1878-82; Chris. Weigenstein, 1878-82; W. M. Matkins, 1878-80; John Q. A. Whitener, 1880-82; E. L. Graham, 1882-86; J. G. Donnell, 18S2-84; W. B. M. White, 1882-84; John Hahn, 1884-85; Joseph Schulte, 1884; L. A. W. Clowuinger, 1886; J. W. Vincent, 1886.

Judges of Probate Court.-D. M. Fox, 1850-51; S. D. Caruthers, 1851-53; Edwal'd Evans, 1853-56; William M. Newberry, 1856-58; D. M. Fox, 1858-60; Thomas Holladay, 1860-65; Daniel Peterson, 1865-73; S. D. Caruthers, 1873-75; L. H. Alford, 1875-77; D. W. O'Bannon, 1877-79; Chris Weigenstein, 1879-83; N. B. Allen, 1883.

Collectors.-M. Stone, 1821-22; Edward Bennett, 1822-23; M. Stone, 1823-24; W. M. Newberry, 1824-25;M. Stone, 1825-31; John Holbert, 1831-33; James Marshall, 1833-34; James Henderson, 1834-35; John M. Teal, 1835-37. From 1837 to 1879 the sheriff was ex-officio collector. Since the latter date Thomas O'Bannon has filled the office with the exception of four years, 1881-85, when William Newberry was the incumbent.

Representatives in the Legislature. -Theodore F. Tong, 1830; Thomas Mosely, Jr., 1834; Jeremiah Cravens, 1836; N. B. Harris, 1840; Henry Kemper, 1844-46; C. K. Henderson, 1846-48; S. D. Caruthers, 1848-50; James Lindsay, 1850-52; G. W. King, 1852-56; John Polk, 1856-58; Josiah M. Anthony, 1858-60; Daniel Rhodes, 1862-64; J. F. Foster, 1864-66; Richard Britton, 1866-68; W. N. NaIle, 1868-70; S. C. Collier, 1870-72; J. B. Duchouquette, 1872-74; J. M. Anthony, 1874; John R. Turner, 1878-80; J. M. Anthony, 1880-84; J. G. Donnell, 1884-86; F. R. Newberry, 1886.

Fredericktown.-The village of St. Michaels, of which Fredericktown is the successor, was established about 1802 by several French families that had received grants of land in the vicinity. It consisted of a little cluster of log houses, some twelve or fifteen in number, and a store kept by Charles F. Goin. When, in June, 1814, the Saline and Castor Creeks overflowed their banks, and drove the inhabitants out, some of the families refused to return, and established what was known as the new village, one and one-half miles north of St. Michaels, where in 1820 a church was built. In 1819 Fredericktown was laid off on the Saline, opposite St. Michaels, on land owned by Nathaniel Cook, by. Theodore F. Tong, John Burdett, Joseph Bennett and Henry Whitener, commissioners appointed for that purpose. It was named in honor of George Frederick Bollinger, of Cape Girardeau County. The first stores were opened by S. A. Guignon, S. B. Pratte, and Moses and Caleb Cox. The former occupied a house just below where Dr. Nifong's office now is, and the latter a house standing on the site of W. L. Cohen's residence. Zenas Smith, Henry Janis & Co. and John B. Bossier were merchants there at a little later date. A hotel was opened by Moses Baird, where Judge Allen now lives. In 1827 the town was incorporated with Moses Cox, Thomas Mosely, Jr., Zenas Smith, Moses Baird and S. A. Guignon as the first board of trustees. The town grew slowly, but did not change very much until after the completion of the railroad. In a list of the business men of the "fifties" are found S. A. Guignon, Gregoire & Leclere, William Cox, George Janis, T. S. Nifong, H. N. Tong and Henry Wernecke.

In 1847 a newspaper called the Espial was established by James Lindsay, and is said to have been the first Free Soil paper in the State. It was published but a short time. About 1855 W. H. Booth began the publication of the Fredericktown Journal, which he continued until September, 1861. In 1866 the Conservative was established by S. Henry Smith. He sold the office to Charles E. Barroll, who published the Bee about two years. It was then purchased by E. P . Caruthers,and in 1875 was merged into the Plain Dealer, which was established by William Gosner in 1874. In 1876 W. J. Collier became the editor and proprietor, and continued the publication until 1882, when it passed into the hands of the present owner, O. K. Clardy. The Fredericktown Standard was established by E. D. Anthony in December, 1887. The Jeffersonian, edited by H. M. Williams, the Farmer and Miner, by C. W. Dunifer, and the Clarion, by Perry D. Martin, have each had a brief existence at Fredricktown. A paper called the Advertiser was published at Mine La Motte for a few months in 1877.

During the past ten years Fredericktown has made great progress, both in the number of inhabitants and the character of its buildings. It now covers, not only the original site of Fredericktown, but that of the old village of St. Michaels and all the intervening ground. The following is a business directory of the town: A. & 'V. Pierce, J. & V. Schlessinger, John E. Clardy, Crow & Buford Bros. and W. L. Cohen, general merchandise; Dr. L. J. Villars and H. Christoph, drugs; L. Riggs & Co. and C. Bengert, hardware; Menteer Bros., Henry Jones and James G. Donnell, groceries; H. W. Schwarner and James McKinney, harness; R. Brooks and E. H. Day, undertakers; L. M. Hebner, marble works; T. N. Horne, wagon and blacksmith shop, and M. De Guire & Co., Liberty Roller Mills.

Marcus Lodge, A. F. & A. M., of Fredericktown, was organized on November 25, 1848, with F. L. Sullivan as temporary Worshipful Master. A constitution and by-laws were adopted and several petitions for admission received. One ot the rooms in the courthouse was leased, and the following month an organization was effected, with A. Peace as W. M.; F. L. Sullivan, S. W.;D.P.Lanius,J. W.;J.Kemper,S.D.;G.M.Davidson,J.D.; A. C. Lewin, Secretary; R. H. Lane, Treasurer, andJ. A. Cain, Tyler. The lodge has since maintained a continuous existence, and is now in a prosperous condition, with a membership of about sixty. The present Worshipful Master is N. B. Allen, who has been a member for nearly forty yeal's, and has served some fourteen or fifteen years in his present office.

Nickel Lodge No. 125, A. O. U. W., received its charter April 30,1879. The were Benjamin Colman,P.M.W.;William Nifong, N. W.; G. W. Lanpher, G. F.; F. R. Newberry, 0.; O. K. Clardy, Recorder; John Schulte, Financier; Joseph Schulte, Receiver; B. T. Hartkopf, G.; William Newberry, I. W., and W. H. McClure, O. W. The> lodge holds its meetings in Odd Fellows Hall, and is in a very prosperous condition.

Madison Lodge No. 172, I. O. O. F., was chartered May 20, 1868. It is one of the strongest lodges of the order in Southeast Missouri. and in 1887 completed a large brick hall.

Major Hiram Gavitt Post, G. A. R., was established on May 26, 1884, with the following charter members: B. B. Cahoon, R. Albert, Andrew Roth, W. P. McCanns, E. H. Day, K. D. Rhodes, R. Brooks, B. G. Burks, William Stone, John Santhoff, J. M. Rhodes, F. S. Leech, James Holly, Vardy Baldwin, John Sunderman, Samuel Johnson, B. O'Conner and W. J. Alexander.

The present graded school system in Fredericktown was established in with J. B. Scott as principal teacher. He was succeeded by J. H. Gans, and since 1883 the schools have been under the management of J. L. Frohock. Five teachers are employed in the white schools and one in the colored school.

Marquand, a village on the railroad in the west part of the county, was laid out on land owned by Henry Whitener, in 1869. The first business house was built by John Q. Whitener, who opened a store in partnership with Jacob Lutes. The town was named in honor of W. G. Marquand, who made a donation of $1,000 for a chUl·ch. There are now three churches, three general stores and a large steam flouring-mill, the latter owned and operated by A. J. Beardsley.

In Madison County the lawyers who, prior to the Civil War, remained long enough to gain a reputation, were William M. Newberry, Samuel Caruthers and D. M. F O L Newberry was born in Frankfort, Ky., in the year 1800, and at the age of eighteen came to Missouri, and engaged in teaching school. His name appears on the roll of attorneys as early as 1826, and from that time until his death, in 1876, he was engaged in the practice of his profession. He was a good lawyer, and a fair speaker, but, although he lived to an advanced age, he was never very strong, physically.

Samuel Caruthers was born in Madison County. He was a nephew of Robert L. Caruthers, of Tennessee, and obtained his legal education in Cumberland University. His tastes ran more in the direction of politics than law, and in 1852 he was elected to represent the Southeast Missouri District in Congress. He possessed a whole-souled, genial disposition, was a fine campaign speaker, told a good story well, and was an adept in all the arts of the politician. These· qualities, combined with the fact that his district was supposed to be largely composed of swamps, won for him the sobriquet of the "Swamp Fox." He was twice reelected, and died soon after the expiration of his third term.

D. M. Fox was the father of Judge James D. Fox. He was educated for the priesthood, but his health became impaired, and he subsequently, about 1845, began the practice of law. He was possessed of fine legal ability, and was a successful practitioner. S. C. Collier, John F. Edwards and J. D. Perkins have more recently been members of the Madison County Bar. Collier died about 1875. Edwards recently located in Kansas City, and Perkins is now a resident of Carthage, Mo. B. B. Cahoon, Robert A. Anthony, O. K. Clardy, Medford Cahoon and E. Anthony constitute the present bar.

For more on Fredericktown's History check The Foundation for Historic Preservation.